Gastroenteritis

Gastroenteritis
Other namesGastro, stomach bug, stomach virus, stomach flu, gastric flu, gastrointestinitis
Gastroenteritis viruses.jpg
Gastroenteritis viruses: A = rotavirus, B = adenovirus, C = norovirus and D = astrovirus. The virus particles are shown at the same magnification to allow size comparison.
SpecialtyInfectious disease, gastroenterology
SymptomsDiarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever[1][2]
ComplicationsDehydration[2][3]
CausesViruses, bacteria, parasites, fungus[2][4]
Diagnostic methodBased on symptoms, occasionally stool culture[2]
Differential diagnosisInflammatory bowel disease, malabsorption syndrome, lactose intolerance[5]
PreventionHand washing, drinking clean water, proper disposal of human waste, breastfeeding[2]
TreatmentOral rehydration solution (combination of water, salts, and sugar), intravenous fluids[2]
Frequency2.4 billion (2015)[6]
Deaths1.3 million (2015)[7]

Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea and gastro, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach and intestine.[8] Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.[1] Fever, lack of energy, and dehydration may also occur.[2][3] This typically lasts less than two weeks.[8] It is not related to influenza, even though in the US it is sometimes called the "stomach flu".[9]

Gastroenteritis is usually caused by viruses,[4] but bacteria, parasites, and fungi can also cause gastroenteritis.[2][4] In children, rotavirus is the most common cause of severe disease.[10] In adults, norovirus and Campylobacter are common causes.[11][12] Eating improperly prepared food, drinking contaminated water or close contact with a person who is infected can spread the disease.[2] Treatment is generally the same with or without a definitive diagnosis, so testing to confirm is usually not needed.[2]

For young children in impoverished countries, prevention includes hand washing with soap, drinking clean water, breastfeeding babies instead of using formula,[2] and proper disposal of human waste. The rotavirus vaccine is recommended as a prevention for children.[2][10] Treatment involves getting enough fluids.[2] For mild or moderate cases, this can typically be achieved by drinking oral rehydration solution (a combination of water, salts and sugar).[2] In those who are breastfed, continued breastfeeding is recommended.[2] For more severe cases, intravenous fluids may be needed.[2] Fluids may also be given by a nasogastric tube.[13] Zinc supplementation is recommended in children.[2] Antibiotics are generally not needed.[14] However, antibiotics are recommended for young children with a fever and bloody diarrhea.[1]

In 2015, there were two billion cases of gastroenteritis, resulting in 1.3 million deaths globally.[6][7] Children and those in the developing world are affected the most.[15] In 2011, there were about 1.7 billion cases, resulting in about 700,000 deaths of children under the age of five.[16] In the developing world, children less than two years of age frequently get six or more infections a year.[17] It is less common in adults, partly due to the development of immunity.[18]

  1. ^ a b c Singh, Amandeep (July 2010). "Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice Acute Gastroenteritis — An Update". Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice. 7 (7).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Ciccarelli, S; Stolfi, I; Caramia, G (29 October 2013). "Management strategies in the treatment of neonatal and pediatric gastroenteritis". Infection and Drug Resistance. 6: 133–61. doi:10.2147/IDR.S12718. PMC 3815002. PMID 24194646.
  3. ^ a b Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015: 5 Books in 1. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2014. p. 479. ISBN 978-0-323-08430-7. Archived from the original on 2017-09-08.
  4. ^ a b c A. Helms, Richard (2006). Textbook of therapeutics : drug and disease management (8. ed.). Philadelphia [u.a.]: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 2003. ISBN 978-0-7817-5734-8. Archived from the original on 2017-09-08.
  5. ^ Caterino, Jeffrey M.; Kahan, Scott (2003). In a Page: Emergency medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 293. ISBN 978-1-4051-0357-2. Archived from the original on 2017-09-08.
  6. ^ a b GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282. {{cite journal}}: |first1= has generic name (help)
  7. ^ a b GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281. {{cite journal}}: |first1= has generic name (help)
  8. ^ a b Schlossberg, David (2015). Clinical infectious disease (Second ed.). p. 334. ISBN 978-1-107-03891-2. Archived from the original on 2017-09-08.
  9. ^ Shors, Teri (2013). The microbial challenge : a public health perspective (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 457. ISBN 978-1-4496-7333-8. Archived from the original on 2017-09-08.
  10. ^ a b Tate JE, Burton AH, Boschi-Pinto C, Steele AD, Duque J, Parashar UD (February 2012). "2008 estimate of worldwide rotavirus-associated mortality in children younger than 5 years before the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 12 (2): 136–41. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70253-5. PMID 22030330.
  11. ^ Marshall JA, Bruggink LD (April 2011). "The dynamics of norovirus outbreak epidemics: recent insights". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 8 (4): 1141–9. doi:10.3390/ijerph8041141. PMC 3118882. PMID 21695033.
  12. ^ Man SM (December 2011). "The clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species". Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 8 (12): 669–85. doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2011.191. PMID 22025030. S2CID 24103030.
  13. ^ Webb, A; Starr, M (April 2005). "Acute gastroenteritis in children". Australian Family Physician. 34 (4): 227–31. PMID 15861741.
  14. ^ Zollner-Schwetz, I; Krause, R (August 2015). "Therapy of acute gastroenteritis: role of antibiotics". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 21 (8): 744–9. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2015.03.002. PMID 25769427.
  15. ^ Webber, Roger (2009). Communicable disease epidemiology and control : a global perspective (3rd ed.). Wallingford, Oxfordshire: Cabi. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-84593-504-7. Archived from the original on 2015-10-26.
  16. ^ Walker, CL; Rudan, I; Liu, L; Nair, H; Theodoratou, E; Bhutta, ZA; O'Brien, KL; Campbell, H; Black, RE (Apr 20, 2013). "Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea". Lancet. 381 (9875): 1405–16. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60222-6. PMC 7159282. PMID 23582727.
  17. ^ Dolin, Raphael; Mandell, Gerald L.; Bennett, John E., eds. (2010). "Chapter 93". Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases (7th ed.). Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-443-06839-3.
  18. ^ Eckardt AJ, Baumgart DC (January 2011). "Viral gastroenteritis in adults". Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery. 6 (1): 54–63. doi:10.2174/157489111794407877. PMID 21210762.

Gastroenteritis

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