Inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
Gastroenteritis Other names Gastro, stomach bug, stomach virus, stomach flu, gastric flu, gastrointestinitis Gastroenteritis viruses: A = rotavirus, B = adenovirus, C = norovirus and D = astrovirus. The virus particles are shown at the same magnification to allow size comparison. Specialty Infectious disease, gastroenterology Symptoms Diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever   Complications Dehydration   Causes Viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungus   Diagnostic method Based on symptoms, occasionally stool culture  Differential diagnosis Inflammatory bowel disease, malabsorption syndrome, lactose intolerance  Prevention Hand washing, drinking clean water, proper disposal of human waste, breastfeeding  Treatment Oral rehydration solution (combination of water, salts, and sugar), intravenous fluids  Frequency 2.4 billion (2015)  Deaths 1.3 million (2015)  Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea and gastro, is an inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach and intestine. Symptoms may include  diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.  Fever, lack of energy, and dehydration may also occur.  This typically lasts less than two weeks.  It is not related to  influenza, even though in the U.S. it is sometimes called the " stomach flu".
Gastroenteritis is usually caused by
viruses; however, gut  bacteria, parasites, and fungi can also cause gastroenteritis.  In children,  rotavirus is the most common cause of severe disease. In adults,  norovirus and are common causes. Campylobacter  Eating improperly prepared food, drinking contaminated water or close contact with a person who is infected can  spread the disease. Treatment is generally the same with or without a definitive diagnosis, so testing to confirm is usually not needed. 
For young children in impoverished countries, prevention includes
hand washing with soap, drinking clean water, breastfeeding babies instead of using formula, and proper disposal of  human waste. The rotavirus vaccine is recommended as a prevention for children.  Treatment involves getting enough fluids.  For mild or moderate cases, this can typically be achieved by drinking  oral rehydration solution (a combination of water, salts and sugar). In those who are breastfed, continued breastfeeding is recommended.  For more severe cases,  intravenous fluids may be needed. Fluids may also be given by a  nasogastric tube.  Zinc supplementation is recommended in children.  Antibiotics are generally not needed. However, antibiotics are recommended for young children with a fever and bloody diarrhea. 
In 2015, there were two billion cases of gastroenteritis, resulting in 1.3 million deaths globally.
 Children and those in the  developing world are affected the most. In 2011, there were about 1.7 billion cases, resulting in about 700,000 deaths of children under the age of five.  In the developing world, children less than two years of age frequently get six or more infections a year.  It is less common in adults, partly due to the development of  immunity.
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